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支持美洲版的南北穿越大片
这是保护的好,还是开发的少。
134 回复
z008282 2017-11-21 22:10 | 只看该作者 | 举报
謝謝各位支持,由於某些原因導致更新不暢,……十分抱歉
135 回复
z008282 2017-11-21 22:13 | 只看该作者 | 举报
7/10 Mesa Verde國家公園一日駕車遊
7/11 Cortez--Blanding 82英里

前幾天我與妹妹討論美國國家公園制度,其中許多值得參考的。除了黃石冰川國家公園的biker/hiker營地,Mesa verda國家公園是另一個典範。

Mersa verde是古Pueblo人居住之地,細節歷史可網路查詢(如維基百科),國家公園內有許多遺址,最重要的三處需購票入場,最早兩天前可到指定場所購買(請參見官網),非假日一般最遲一大早當日票就會售罄,這也是我得提前一日搶票之因。另外園區西側往long house的道路因過盲彎加上路幅窄,禁止自行車,加上園區廣大,我決定租車行。除了管制人數,參觀期間有解說員(ranger)在側,除了知識性的講解,也避免遊客破壞古蹟,無論是否有意,例如『不可觸碰』古蹟建物這項容易被忽略的規則,以避免皮膚上的油漬對古蹟造成傷害。

解說員的解說內容背誦性的告知歷史,而是結合各項知識並帶有個人觀點的解釋。例如牆上的六指與五指掌印,可能代表居民有基因變異性,可合理推論與外界有一定的人員交流與移民。壁畫的意義也許不可考,但是可以推理出住在這裡不只能生存,還有時間精力從事精神活動。居民為何而來,最後為何離去仍是最大的謎,但是乾旱應該不是完全因素(這裡本來就是半乾旱地區),等等。

這也是美國國家公園的最大特色之一-ranger program(解說員活動),大部分解說活動或是健行解說活動是免費的,而在國家公園內營地往往有傍晚解說活動。我也是在落磯山國家公園營地的傍晚解說活動了解到黑色峽谷與Mesa verde等兩個值得參訪國家公園就在我計劃路線附近,否則我可能過門不入。

也許這是最佳保存古蹟的方式,不只保護它,更讓盡可能多的人了解它。

Bakony house,名稱源自照片兩層樓與之間的陽臺設計

Bakony house

Bakony house遺址,與其他遺址不同,被發現時只有僅可爬行進出口,加上其位置,推測有防禦作用,但是又無發現武器,實際作用仍未解。

cliff palace牆上壁畫,燒焦的痕跡也是『古蹟』

cliff palace遺址,Mesa verde最大遺址

cliff palace遺址,起居室(右)與kiva(客廳交誼廳的概念)

long house

long house牆上壁畫,注意六指掌印

long house牆上壁畫

long house遺址

long view的kiva (客廳交誼廳的概念)

離開Bakony house階梯

136 回复
z008282 2017-11-23 22:33 | 只看该作者 | 举报
7/12 Blanding--Hite, 參觀自然石橋(natural bridges national monement) 主道路 77英里
(Highway 95)

7/13 Hite--Hanksville--Caneville 70英里(Highway 98-Highway24)

猶它州人口密集於鹽湖城都會區,其他的廣大地區人口稀少。原因可由其地貌一探究竟。猶它州地多屬乾旱,或是不適合居住的峽谷地形。但也因為地貌特殊,猶它州擁有5座國家公園。

我的路徑大致參考western express trail,這條連結舊金山與中部科羅拉多州的自行車路徑,在猶它州沿者人煙稀少的景觀道路,所有你在地圖上的大公路,都不是我採取的路徑。

沿路的特色碩大紅岩,擁有不同古老年代分層,的確令人目不暇給,但是在盛夏時分,穿越人煙稀少區域,水源是一大問題。也因為如此,我這兩天只有遇到一位單車客。

從Blanding到Hanksville120英里被視為猶它最困難的路段,因為相傳沿路無水源。但是在12日的Hite居然有飲水機!這只是一個國家休閒區保護站(Glenn canyon ranger station),原本我並不抱以厚望,但是這個甫建成的遊客中心居然有飲水機(於遊客中心旁)!雖然我有準備過夜用水,但是有飲水機等於我可以大口暢飲。另外幸好我來的晚,雜貨店已打烊,保護站職員早已回去居住區休息,否則我不確定在飲水機旁邊的荒地過夜是否合法。晚上10點左右來了一對蒙古來的迷路夫婦(他們還問我知不知道蒙古在哪裡),我們大趣的說,三個亞洲人來自少見的國籍,在啥都沒有的地方相遇!

地貌並不總是有趣。7/13後半段進入綠色沙漠,紅色巨岩峽谷變成了月世界。最後我錯估情勢來到沒有雜貨店的村落,幸好還有私人露營地供應水源與過夜場所。

7/12 Blanding--Hite,, visit natural bridges national monement), cycled on highway 95 from mp 122 to 48

7/13 Hite--Hanksville--Caneville, cycled on highway 95 from 48 to 0, then cycled on highway 24 from mp 116 to 75

Most Utah people resident in Salt lake metropolitan area. Leaving Salt lake is less populated, other than vast arid area, canyonlands which is not ideal for farming, all of them causes low population density in state Utah. But also because of charming landscape, Utah has 5 national parks.

My cycle route is along the western express trail, which connects San Francisco and central Colorado. This bicycle trail follows scenic byways in Utah. All of the major highways are not included in this route.

Gigantic dark red rocks with layers of different ancient eras are really amazing. But cycle through arid regions in midsummer is kind of insane. I only met 1 cyclist on the opposite direction in the two days.

Where is the water? I am not in April Alaska, where frozen water just on the roadside. One of the most difficult section in Utah of western express trail is Blanding to Hanksville, 120 miles without water resources on some records, but I indeed found drinking water in Hite in the middle. It's a new built Glenn canyon ranger station just 2 miles off main highway. And fortunately I came here late and rangers were not around the station/visitor center, or I wonder if I would be allowed to camp in dessert land next to the ranger station, where water fountain locates. A lost Mongolian couple came around 10pm and we joked that 3 Asian travelers of less-seen nationals in America met on the middle of nowhere!

The landscape is not always interesting. Red canyon becomes green desert about 20 miles north Hanksville. I misunderstood the information and came into a village of no food supply in Caineville, luckily I found a ** campground with shower and drinking water.


Blanding--Hite路景(公路編號95),Glenn峽谷

Blanding--Hite路景(公路編號95),不同顏色分層代表不同考古年代

Blanding--Hite路景(公路編號95)

Blanding--Hite路景(公路編號95)

Blanding--Hite路景(公路編號95)

Blanding--Hite路景(公路編號95)

Blanding--Hite路景(公路編號95)

Blanding--Hite路景(公路編號95)

Blanding--Hite路景(公路編號95)

Blanding--Hite路景(公路編號95)

Hite--Hanksville路景(公路編號95),紅色乾谷

Hite--Hanksville路景(公路編號95),紅色有層次巨岩變成灰色

Hite--Hanksville路景(公路編號95),月世界乾旱景觀

Hite--Hanksville路景(公路編號95),月世界乾旱景觀1

Hite--Hanksville路景(公路編號95)

Hite--Hanksville路景(公路編號95)

Hite--Hanksville路景(公路編號95)

Hite--Hanksville路景,有特色的圓錐有孔洞灰岩

Owachomo自然石橋

公路休息區,無水

科羅拉多河

科羅拉多河

科羅拉多河

科羅拉多河橋

文章提到的Hite


因水源匱乏而關閉的旅館

猶他州界碑

137 回复
z008282 2017-11-28 22:32 | 只看该作者 | 举报
7/14 Caneville--Torrey--公路編號12最高點,里程101(公路編號24與12) 48英里
7/15 7/14--Tropic(公路編號12) 79英里

7/15號下了我在猶他州最長的雷陣雨,5分鐘。

在猶他州中西側的山麓地區,一方面來自高山的融雪,另一方面盛夏的午後雷陣雨,提供耕種與放牧水源,也是人口相對集中區。但是雷陣雨在8月才達到巔峰,七月閃電打雷個老半天,但是雨沒下幾滴的結果,加上地表積雪融的差不多,結果就是森林可能很高興的燒起來。

森林因閃電起火一直是美國中西部夏季災害,這裡不加多談。這兩天的地形多變,從峽谷到森林,一路夭壽的從1500爬到快2800,這段爬坡不是均勻的,而是像插旗竿般由數段陡坡組成。道路在另一個小鎮Boulder回到峽谷底部,之後爬上峽谷上緣的桌型平原並在其中蜿蜒,有幾段沒有護欄,有在騎鋪柏油的塔比拉斷崖的感覺。之後道路在充滿綠意的河谷翻過高度約2300的隘口,之後下抵三個小鎮,包含農業小鎮Henrieville以探索這個區域的先驅者為名,與我過夜的觀光小鎮Tropic。

上一篇提到我幸運的在Caneville找到私人露營地,其實沒那麼幸運。老闆把一台晚到的露營車安排在我的帳篷旁邊,我原本不以為意,但是在半夜發現露營車的接電插頭發出巨大噪音,在不知他們是來健行還是打獵的狀況下,只好半夜拖著塞滿行李的沉重帳篷遠走他處。

而7/14的森林營地正好在放牧區旁,煮晚餐時一隻牛一直盯著我看,不知是看到紅色的火讓它興奮,還是想嘗試葷食,我很擔心它會衝過來,打翻爐頭,引起森林大火。隔天一早天還沒亮就被牛吵醒。

地貌特殊,被牛牟叫聲吵醒,還有下5分鐘,衣服服3分鐘就乾的天氣,只差撿到恐龍化石我就心滿意足了。

4 Caneville--Torrey--summit Highway 12, mp101 48miles
7/15 7/14--Tropic(highway12) 79miles

The most lasting thunderstorm happened in 15, July in my journey in Utah, lasted for about 5 minutes.

In middle-west of Utah is high range and two national forest locates--fishlake and dixie. The river in the valley receives streams from thawing ice and monsoon in summertime, provides water resources for farming and ranching. The most severe thunderstorm is on August. In July thunder and lightning in the afternoon are common, but usually few rainfall is expected. Accomplished by strong lightning is high possibilities of forest fire.

I am not going further on forest fire. But from arid canyon to moisture forest, from about 1100 meters in Hire to highest point of highway 12, which is almost 2800 meters in altitude,Utah has really huge diversity of landscape. Leaving the forest, the highway winds down to Boulder, then climbs to plateau on the top of large canyon rock masses. Some sections is without guardrail and a bit scary to me. Further going is a greenish valley and soonish gently ascends to another pass, before descending to another valley where three charming towns locates, including an agricultural village Henrieville which is named after the pioneer in the region, and a tourist town Tropic where I overnighted. Combined with several unfriendly steep grades, climbing the first summit is difficult to me.

I wrote about fortunately finding a ** campground before dark on 13 July. Well, maybe not so lucky. The owner arranged a rv parked next to my tend at about 10pm. I didn't pay attention it but soon I realized that rv electric hookup makes huge noises. In the case that I didn't know if they came for hiking or hunting, I didn't dare to wake them up but to skid the filling and heavy tent and move elsewhere at midnight.

I camped in the woods in somewhere of Fishlake national forest, near the highway summit and just by the grassy ranch on 7/14. A cow staring at me when cooking dinner. Excited to the red-colored fire or want to try something non-vegetarian? I didn't know but kind of afraid that the cow rushed to me, knocked over the firing stove, and then burned down the forest. Seriously.

The next day I was waked by the cows, an interesting experience to me. Also the gorgeous landscape, the changing weather, are all makes my journey in Utah appealing(not enjoyable). And I think that a dinosaur fossil on the roadside would make this section perfect!

道路行於峽谷頂端

高山路段眺望紅色峽谷

森林路段

文章提到的Boulder--Escalante路段,道路走在峽谷頂端

文章提到的Boulder--Escalante路段,道路走在峽谷頂端1

文章提到的森林道路高點,露營過夜地點

圓頂礁國家公園,Beckman自然石橋

圓頂礁國家公園,壁畫

圓頂礁國家公園,附近泥溝

圓頂礁國家公園,煙囪石

圓頂礁國家公園,招牌巨岩

圓頂礁國家公園

138 回复
z008282 2017-12-1 20:19 | 只看该作者 | 举报
7/17 Tropic-Bryce峽谷國家公園(Bryce canyon national park) 10英里,參觀國家公園與免費導覽公車

Bryce峽谷並不是真的峽谷,因為沒有河川穿越其中。形成被稱為Hoodoos的柱狀地質景觀不外乎冰、水、風的侵蝕,加上外在環境的配合,諸如這裡每年超過200天日間氣溫超過0度,但是夜間降至冰點以下,這會加速岩石的裂解,而這裡地質古老,不同考古年代有不同的岩石組成,其中來自湖泊年代的泥岩較石灰岩耐侵蝕,石灰岩鎂含量越高顏色會偏黃也比較抗侵蝕等。網路有更多資料。

回到我的旅行,我並沒有在園區內騎車。不論原因,國家公園在降低園區內車輛滿用心的。以Bryce為例,貫穿園區道路18英里,遊客設施都在前4英里,有兩種接駁車行駛,第一種繞行遊客設施與前4英里的景點,旺季10-20分鐘ㄧ班;另一種彩虹巴士(rainbow shuttle bus)一天兩班,一路導覽解說帶旅客到道路終點,彩虹觀景點(rainbow point)。

第二種導覽車是免費的(還是要買門票),這是精明的委外經營,旅客付門票錢給國家公園,國家公園撥一筆預算給私人企業經營導覽服務,避免遊覽車把園區塞爆(園區內禁行遊覽車)。美國國家公園的熱門程度和位置有很大關係,Bryce算是猶他州最容易被塞爆的,雖然只有18英里的旅遊道路。導覽車最早可七日前預約,我當然不會浪費這個大好機會,也避免和汽車爭道,雖然預定一週後的行程有些困擾。

7/17 Tropic--Bryce canyon national park, 10 miles, visit the national park and took free rainbow interpretive shuttle bus

Without river goes through, Bryce canyon is not a real canyon. The formation of Hoodoos, the pillar shaped colorful rocks is mainly because of erosion of water and wind, and ice cleavage. Physical environment is also important for hoodoos formation, such as huge temperature difference between day and night, at least 200 days in one year has daytime temperature beyond frozen point, but below at night,which increases the ice cleavage. Aged geology indicates huge chemical component differences in rock layers of each geologic years, and different rates of erosion. For example, mud rocks, which sedimented when this area is under water, is more resistant to erosion than limestone. And limestone composes more magnesium is more resistant,and magnesium makes the yellowish color.

Back to my journey. I didn't cycle in Bryce canyon national park. No matter what reason is, national parks in USA makes efforts to reduce the vehicle numbers in the park. Two shuttle buses in Bryce, the first one takes tourists to the facilities and main sights in first four miles of park road. The second one, rainbow shuttle bus, takes tourists to the end point, rainbow point, of the park road.

Rainbow shuttle bus is also an interpretive tour. It's free of charge and reservation is recommended( can be made up to 7 days before). It's a smart strategy to lower the ** vehicle use. Tourists still have to pay the entrance fee to enter the park. And the park grant funds to ** sector to run rainbow bus. Bryce canyon is a busy park because of its scenery and location, so prevents tourists jam in the park is important. Of course I took rainbow bus instead of cycling and beating the road with motorized vehicles. Although it's a bit disturbing to reserve the bus tour one week before.

1遊客中心有步道可以走到Hoodoos其中

Bryce峽谷招牌照片

公路終點彩虹展望點(rainbow point)

看到照片中間的駱駝了嗎

兔子石(突出的巨岩),我覺得不像

遊客中心附近的日落展望點(sunset point)

遊客中心有步道可以走到Hoodoos其中

遊客中心有步道可以走到Hoodoos其中

遊客中心有步道可以走到Hoodoos其中

又是自然石橋

139 回复
z008282 2017-12-2 09:00 | 只看该作者 | 举报
Please read the English version in the second half of this article.

7/17 Bryce峽谷國家公園--紅色峽谷--Panguich鎮--Cedar breaks國家景致(national monument)--雪松城(Cedar city) 公路編號12,89,143,148,14 75英里
7/18 雪松城--Milford 57英里

7/17淋了三陣雷陣雨!

那天的路程需從海拔約2000的Panguich鎮翻上海拔大約3200的Cedar breaks國家景致,也是以柱狀岩石Hoodoos聞名。這斷上坡坡度均勻和緩,並不困難,但是烏雲似乎一路尾隨,應該區域侷限且時間短暫的雷陣雨,居然被我遇到三次。雪松城旅館的老闆還跟我說:啥,這裡還沒有午後雷陣雨。語畢不久,傾盆大雨來襲。

雪松城是大城鎮,人口超過2萬人,鎮區內私人露營地只有2處,但是旅館至少有1打,競爭激烈下,最便宜的一晚43美金,含早餐。而隔日的Milford更是有趣,人口大約1500,位居水源不渝匱乏的河谷,昔日為重要交通節點,目前農牧業發達的小鎮,應該一片欣欣向榮。但是走進鎮區,一路『待轉售(for sale)』的商家,似乎代表這個小鎮正在掙扎求生。而一家價格同樣便宜的旅館,附有24小時營業的餐廳,在荒涼的地區開一間24小時營業的餐廳,真是有膽,誠心希望業者能撐久點。

接下來是北美『魔鬼訓練週』,穿越內華達沙漠的公路50,得橫跨超過10個南北走向的山丘,且可以補給水源聚落之間距離遙遠。有人帶很多水,騎到哪裡算哪裡,但是我傾向仔細規劃行程,每天盡量在有水源的小鎮過夜,而非攜帶很多的水,拖慢速度。而過了這片沙漠,就是久違的太平洋。

7/17 Bryce canyon national park--red canyon--Panguich--Cedar breaks national monument--Cedar city highway12,89,143,148,14 75miles
7/18 Cedar city--Milford 57miles

I got 3 thunder storms on 7/17.

From Panguish in about 2000 meters above sea level, highway 143 gently picks up altitude until Cedar breaks national monument, about 3100-3250 meters height above sea level. Grinding on this section should not be strenuous, although pouring rains almost drove me crazy. Thunderstorms should be limited in location and duration, but the clouds seemed to trail behind me all the way and gave me three severe showers. I need one shower in three days, not 3 showers in one day. And I don't like my clothes drenched all the afternoon. More than that, another thunderstorm happened soon after I was told the thunderstorm hadn't strike Cedar city when checking in the hotel.

With more than 20,000 population, Cedar city is a big town in the standard of Utah. It only has 2 ** campground but at least a dozen of hotels. Under fierce competition, the cheapest hotel is only 43 dollars per night, breakfast included. Another town Milford, once important in railway transportation, with popular about 1500, located in a water abundant valley. Farming and ranching are still important now. It seems that Milford is a busy town, but several “for sale” shops in township tells me that Milford is struggling to survive. In the case, the open 24 hours restaurant just next to the renovated hotel is a bizarre existence. To open a never-closed restaurant in the middle of nowhere(to some extent), I don't know why but sincerely hope that this facility could have a long life.

Beyond Utah of my journey is Nevada desert. Making cycle through Nevada desert difficult is not only that cyclists have to wind through several passes separating the desert, but also the distance between two towns(which indicates water resources) is remote. Some cyclists carry as much water and cycle as far as they can. But I prefer another strategy. To read the map carefully, and make to another town before dark, instead of carrying lots of water for camping in the desert, and more water loaded means slower the speed.

Boulder--Escalante路景

Cedar breaks國家景致,海拔超過3200

Cedar breaks國家景致,有小溪流過

Cedar breaks國家景致

Cedar breaks國家景致

Escalante straircase國家景致

Escalante--Hanrieville路景,道路需翻過隘口,隘口前是寬溪谷景觀,之後如照片的類似泥岩惡地景觀

Milford鎮

Parawon 岩石間隙(gap)

冰雹

海拔約2500的Panguish湖

紅色峽谷(位於Bryce峽谷國家公園與公路89號之間)

紅色峽谷

雪松城到Milford路景

有Cedar breaks下抵雪松城的路段

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